null

Teaching ELs From A Distance

Online Teaching Tips For Teaching ELs Remotely

Saddleback Educational Publishing conducts a Webinar Series to spread information and resources for online learning programs. The following article is an enhanced summary based on our webinar Teaching ELS From A Distance: Tips For Fall Planning hosted by Esther Park, Caterina Lazor, and Maria Montroni-Currais on July 16th 2020.

Our topic today is teaching our English learners from a distance. We want to come away from this conversation having some solid tips for planning. I think what this conversation will do is allow us to focus on what we can control, which is communicating with our colleagues about things that have been helpful. Each of our speakers will present some information, tips, resources, and takeaways from teaching their English learners from a distance this past spring that they plan to carry into the fall.

Our Educators

Joining us today are Maria Montroni-Currais, Supervisor of Curriculum and Instruction for Somerdale Park School; Caterina Lazor, ESL Instructional Coach and Middle School Teacher with Elk Island Catholic Schools; and Esther Park, High School Newcomer and SLIFE Teacher with Fairfax County Public Schools.

Websites and Strategies For Teaching ESL Online

First, we will begin with Maria. Maria is going to share with us a lot of very practical, very easy to implement websites and strategies that were very impactful for her students. If you are not aware, Maria is also the creator of the ESL at Home document that was a viral sensation when people were looking for ESL appropriate materials to send home for their students who didn’t have technology. This is the document that has been translated into numerous languages and lives on her blog, so she’ll tell us a little bit about that as well.

Maria; One of my passions when it comes to teaching English language learners is conversation skills and developing conversation skills. The reason that I’m so passionate about that is because I was a language learner. I had a minor in French. I studied French all through high school and college and when it came time for me to study abroad in Paris, I was so excited but I was terrified of speaking to a native speaker. It’s one of the reasons I didn’t continue my study of French. I was so nervous about saying the wrong thing, using the wrong verb tense, mispronouncing one of the accents. What I love to do with my kids is show them that it’s okay to make a mistake because I never had anybody tell me that, especially when I was learning language. One of the things we start in my classroom every day, regardless of whether we are in school or remote, regardless of the level, is to start with some sort of conversation.

Games For ESL Students

In morning meeting, we always include a little bit of a speaking game. I’m going to show you a few of my very favorite speaking games to play with my kids.The first one is a Spot the Difference game and it comes from the Hello Kids website. It’s totally free and it’s all online. What I love about this is you can do this in the classroom on your interactive whiteboard, you can have kids do it in pairs on an iPad Chromebook, or if you’re home and you’re doing something on a video conferencing platform, you can share it there and have them use their annotate tools to work on it with you. What’s great about this is they’ve got a lot of different characters. Some of them are relatable to kids which makes it easier for vocabulary, because they have that background development, but some of them are not. One of the fun ones we did was to work on this school in Africa because it’s not a typical American classroom setting. Some of the things in the picture are not what my kids would be used to. One of the reasons I love playing games like this with Spot the Difference is because there’s no pointing allowed. They have to use that social and academic language talking about cardinal directions, talking about positions, and preposition words to explain where they found something. So that’s one of my favorites from Hello Kids.

Hidden Pictures Game For Learning

Another one comes from Highlights Magazine. You might have remembered it from when you were a kid and it is called Hidden Pictures. Some of them are shorter and some of them are longer and geared towards older kids. What I really like about this is the vocabulary building that comes with this. So maybe you’re focusing on farm animals. This is a great way to talk about animals on the farm, or colors, again those position words and really getting kids comfortable with taking those speaking risks. Something I always think about when I introduce speaking to kids or continue their conversation practices, is that we’re creating a culture of discourse, of a safe space for kids to share and not feel intimidated, because speaking in a foreign language in any second, third, fourth, whatever number language it is, is always going to be risky and always going to be hard. My job is to make it as fun and welcoming as safe as I can.

Where’s Waldo Online

Another fun thing is Where’s Waldo. I found this blog. It’s completely free. They don’t have a huge selection, but they have a big enough selection that could do maybe once a week and then cycle back around. You can do it with different classes. I love doing Where’s Waldo because the kids were really focused and even on Zoom that competition and camaraderie that we had in the classroom came out. The kids were cheering for each other or gently heckling, as I like to say, when somebody thought they found Waldo and it wasn’t Waldo. This is a really great way also to talk about vocabulary, especially with your littles. You can ask them to point to things and they really have to look and use that visual discrimination to find the sailboat, or find the woman wearing a red dress, or whatever it is that you want. It’s really fun and engaging for them.

10 Finger Sentence

My very favorite classroom strategy is called the 10-finger sentence. This website is called Pixabay and it is my go-to just because the pictures are generally higher quality and pretty safe, like this puppy. I like dogs so I’m going to teach you how to do a 10-finger sentence using this picture. A 10-finger sentence is exactly what it sounds like. You’re going to make a sentence about any given topic, in our case, this cute little dog, using ten fingers. What I love about this is it’s great for your low proficient learners. They’re able to use the vocabulary they have. A lot of sentences for my little ones start with, “I see that.” That’s three words down. “Brown dog.” Doing what? “Swimming.” Where? “In the large lake.”

You can really have fun with ten finger sentences. You could even eliminate the word and say, “Give me a sentence about this picture without using the word dog,” and you will see the wheels turning in their eyes. I promise you I’ve seen it. Kids have to think to produce a sentence. It’s fun. It’s all part of that gamification of the classroom.

Reading Comprehension Resource For ESL Learners

Now we’re going to move on to reading. After we would go through our morning meeting and our speaking game, we would move on to reading a book. This would be either in class or remote. When we were remote, obviously I didn’t have my whole huge classroom library, so I had to use online books. I love Get Epic for this because of the huge variety of books that they have at all reading levels. If you wanted to add students to your classroom, you have the capability to do that. Get Epic is free for educators. Some of the books are read to me and some of the books are read on your own which is great because you can work on listening skills and you can work on fluency skills. One of my kids’ favorite this spring was reading Jabari Jumps, which is a great book. It opened up so many discussions because it was so timely about being brave, about kids who maybe don’t look like you that you might see in the neighborhood, about overcoming your fears. In the spring, as you know, our kids had and they still have all of these fears that they need to overcome.

Vooks Animated Books

The next resource I’m going to show you is Vooks. The difference with Vooks is that they have animated all of these books so you can watch. One of our favorites is Click Clack Moo. You’ll see farmer brown kind of move across the page and the narration is highlighted so the words are highlighted. It’s great for developing fluency. If you’re going to do a reader’s theater, which is another passion of mine, you could use that as your jumping off point to listen to fluent reading. The next one that I’ll share is Unite for Literacy. Unite for Literacy is an Amazing free site with so many non-fiction titles. Most of these titles, if not all of them, come in all different languages. To find a book that was written in Burmese is amazing. So, check out Unite for Literacy just for the fact that you can get books written in some kids first language, which is as we know vitally important.

ABCMouse

Next up is ABCmouse. In my classroom library, I have stacks and baskets of books. What I realized is that the library in ABCmouse almost mirrors the library that I have in my classroom. They’ve got Curious George, National Geographic Readers, all of the Disney titles, and all the superhero titles. What I love about this is even though you have to pay for ABCmouse, you get access to all of those high interest engaging books that the kids actually love to read when they’re in your classroom. I’ve talked a lot about speaking and reading things that can work both in school in a hybrid model or remote. One thing that I want to share with you is ESL At Home. It is a project that I started in March because I quickly needed to send something home with my kids and I knew they a weren’t going to have a device. We weren’t going to have the parental support and supervision to either get on the device or then actually do the work that they needed to do, so I wrote out something that would work for all of my learners at all levels of proficiency and all levels of socioeconomic status.

ESL at Home only requires a few things you could find around the house. We’re not asking for Legos, we’re not asking to count the marbles, because the kids in my building don’t have Legos at home, they don’t have the marbles at home. We’re asking them for crackers and things like that and those are maybe things that they actually might have in the pantry. ESL at Home has been translated into 36 languages. Most of those languages have 12 weeks, some of them we stopped at weeks 5 through 8. I’m hoping as the summer goes on, we can kind of get back into adding some translations. All of these translations were a country and statewide community effort. I cannot thank all of you so much for your support and participation. Please share because this is going to stay here forever and ever. It’s always going to be free.

Relationships with Students and Families

I think what’s going to be great about what Caterina shares is we all know that for successful instruction, whether it’s brick and mortar or remote, we have to have very strong relationships with our students and our families. Caterina is about to share some tips for that piece of it. Let’s turn it over to Caterina so she can share what worked for her.

Caterina; Firstly, I just want to say what an honor it is to be able to chat with these fabulous ladies today. This is by no means a perfect world of education and I just think it’s so amazing that we’re continuing to show up for our students and advocate for our ELLs. To all of you tuning in, thank you for being here because it is a group effort. We’re truly all in this together.

Importance Of A Sense Of Belonging

I really wanted to start with what the research says, and that is if students have a higher sense of belonging, then as a result, they will have an increase in confidence and relationships which will in turn affect an increase in language and academics. So, if we think about this in terms of our English language learners, they’re coming into your classroom likely with lots of issues with their sense of belonging: new country, new classroom, new language, new culture, new friends, the list goes on. So helping them find a safe environment, a sense of belonging, is very important. If we think about this in distance learning, this is even more important because we want to have our students engaged. We want to have our students continuing to show up to our classes to have engagement. The real key and the core of what I have found works is to really build those relationships and help students find a sense of belonging. So I want to start with some awesome ways that I decided to connect with my students. I knew that if I continued to have a safe space for students and that connection was there then likely we would have more engagement.

Talking Points Game For ESL Students

The first thing that I did was I used this platform called Talking Points. If you haven’t checked it out you have to try it. Talking Points is an awesome tool that allows you to connect with students and families using their first language. What happens is you type in English whatever message you would like for them to receive and they can receive in whichever language is their first language or most common language to them. This was really awesome for any families with their communication barrier, with all the differences in going online, with everything that was happening, where they could find information. It was really a really awesome platform.

Social Media Platforms For Teachers

Another thing that I said that I would never do, but I did, is I created a Tik Tok account. For those of you who don’t know, Tik Tok is like a social media platform that allows you to post little videos and I made it specifically about my teaching. My goal was to connect with my students and guarantee you that eighty percent of my middle schoolers are on Tik Tok. It was just little videos about how to connect on Google Classroom, how to hand in an assignment, things like that. So that’s another way that I decided to connect with my students. I also have a teacher Instagram account so my students can follow me and it’s kind of an easier, user friendly way for them to connect with me. These are just some things that work for me. They’re not by no means anything that is prescribed or written in stone but just kind of building that connection in, going above and beyond, making sure that they were okay, was really important. Beyond those technological kinds of things that I tried, we also were really trying to make sure that students were okay. We did home visits, obviously from a distance, to make sure that the kids that weren’t connecting were okay. We also delivered packages to students that may not have had technology available to them. We did those things to try and make sure that the connection was there. It was less about, hey did you finish your math test, and more about, hey are you okay, that was the number one thing that we were concerned about.

Make Technology Accessible

The next one that I want to talk about is really making technology accessible. In this time, we can’t make any assumptions that students have access to technology or even are able to use the technology that we’re asking them to, so really making sure that there’s multiple ways for students to get the information, to do the assessments, to engage in learning, was really important. I kind of mentioned before that we printed off resources, we delivered them to them. What we really wanted to do was make sure when technology was presented that we were very clear about the expectations. At every point we were sharing our screens with students. There were very clear expectations of what needed to happen. So step one, here’s what you have to do. There’s the visual, there’s the example. We know that visuals are very key for English language learners, especially in distance learning, to understand what the expectation is. With any technology platform it’s very clear what needs to happen to use that technology, or very clear what the expectations are for that assignment. Just using visuals, using lots of examples, always sharing your screen, making sure that students had multiple ways to access the material was key.

So the number one way that I found my students engaging in my online learning was when they had the opportunity to engage together and being a part of conversations online was super valuable to just have that social factor. As we know for English language learners, this is even more of a barrier. I tried to create opportunities for students to speak in different ways. One of the ways that I found worked was giving students the vocabulary and conversation topics ahead of time, so they were able to see, okay this is all the vocabulary that we’re going to be talking about moving forward in this class. Here’s what we’re going to be discussing. Here are some sentence starters about how we can frame that language. Then here’s the visual to go around with it. Here’s an example of a type of graphic organizer that I would use with my students. A way that I would frame the lesson is I would video myself either using a platform like screencastify, or just myself in a video and then I would upload it onto YouTube, and they would be able to use the captions and translate the captions if they would like to. After that I would give them the vocabulary, the sentence starters associated with all the things that we’ve read in that little excerpt together, then they would have this awesome graphic organizer that they could use the vocabulary with to fill in. Then the next class all the conversation would be around the sentence starters and the vocabulary that we talked about previously. It was all linked together and was all scaffolded in a way that made the learning very accessible for students. My huge goal in connecting with my English language learners was I wanted to have less comprehensible input, more output. I wanted to have students be able to work with the material, be able to speak, have opportunities to really engage with each other using this platform that clumped everything together, and it really helped.

Assessments and Distance Learning

The next one I want to talk about is assessment. Now assessment was a huge gray area obviously in distance learning and I just want to share what worked for me. Obviously, assessment kind of changes district to district, state to state, province to province. Obviously, I’m in a different country but what really worked for me is to have very targeted, focused assessment. What that meant was clumping all the outcomes together and making it very clear what the expectation was for students. Like I said before, there was step-by-step instructions, there were pictures, there were examples. I gave opportunities for students to meet with me one-on-one to again talk through the assessment. Let’s talk about it, let’s see where you’re at, let’s see how we can build that scaffold that was previously implemented into the lesson

into the assessment, so that everything was very clear. At every point there was feedback given, throughout the conversations, throughout the drafts, throughout the final product, so that there was learning taking place at every point.

Translation Tools For Teachers

The next one I want to talk about is using translating tools. My huge philosophy through this was I would rather have my student contribute something, read something, write something, do something regardless of where they were in terms of their language ability. For some students that meant using more translating than others. Sometimes that meant using their first language versus English, or sometimes that meant really working them up to the English level. Obviously, our end goal is to have them fluent in English, but in this case where I’m not there to help every step of the way, I really wanted them to just be comprehending, reading, and writing to some degree. Most video chat platforms like Zoom, Google Meet, they have a translator option. If you don’t know how to do that, I would recommend looking up online, or if you look on my blog on surviving teaching.ca, I have instructions on how to do that. So that was a really helpful tool. When we were a part of the conversation, students could go on the chat box and use the translator tool for their advantage. There’s also really awesome speech to text options. Google has a really awesome one. I know there’s some awesome other tools out there so students could speak into the app and then it would produce what they wanted in English. Also Read&Write Google was really awesome, and they also have a translating option, so I really allowed my students to use that as a tool if they needed to in order to meet the outcome.

Having Patience As a Teacher

The last thing that I want to leave you guys with is that this is just such a crazy time for everybody. Just give your students space and don’t overwhelm them. Really give them grace because this is something that I don’t think that I could have done as a learner, and especially with our English language learners. They have so much more stacked against them, so I try to do little things to make the learning more predictable for them. This is one of the things I did. I did a week at a glance every week. It was just very simple. You can see it’s very colorful, it’s very easy to read. I would send it out on Friday so they could kind of mull it over, ask me any questions that they had, and then Monday we were all ready to go. So was just constantly checking in. I was just constantly trying to make sure that they were okay, that they were connecting with me. That was my number one priority. So I know that there was lots in there. I’m really just obviously trying to make sure that they had a sense of belonging, that they had that safe space that we were continuing to build those relationships, because that was really the core of how you’re going to get them to learn or acquire more language. I hope you guys have a few takeaways and I really encourage you to connect with me more.

Distance Learning and High School

To move on now and hear from Esther, who works mostly with high school. Esther is a Google Certified Educator and she does a lot of really cool things with Google Slides. So for that reason, I want to share her slide deck with you because it is so important to the information that she shares.

Let me turn it over to you. Esther; So first of all, thank you so much for this amazing opportunity for me today, along with these amazing, passionate educators to share some of the things that I personally learned while teaching ELLs from a distance. My hope is to together brainstorm and talk about what are the best practices to help them and to serve these precious language learners for the new year. I want everyone to chime in and share some of the strategies as I brainstorm and share as well. As you start planning, I really encourage you to first identify and use those strategies that worked well pre-COVID in your brick and mortar classroom, and then think about how you can modify those strategies and make a shift in those strategies into a digital landscape or even if we end up in a socially distant classroom.

Techniques: Comprehensible Input and Output

What I’m going to share today are tried and true, very basic techniques that have already been supported by language learning research, which I tweaked and made minor shifts to meet the unique needs of our learners in a distant learning setting. My focus today is on sharing strategies and technology tools for comprehensible input, which means making a conscious effort to make these remote lessons understandable, and comprehensible output, kind of like what Caterina shared, which means designing remote learning tasks achievable and demonstrable so that students can show learning digitally. On the next slide you will see an example to help you kind of visualize this language learning process. So if comprehensible input is the process of learning and acquiring new content and new language, output is the product of learning. So for example, for students to be able to understand what we say and what we present, we need to scaffold up to really transcend that added gap and barriers. The affective filter box that you see in the brain is the psychological filter that’s been discussed in second language acquisition brain research that can either support or hinder language learning. We all know from our own experience how stressful it is to teach in front of a computer screen. Imagine how that stress increases students’ affective filter and it blocks their learning. The usual amount of scaffold that we use to make content comprehensible is not enough in a remote setting and that’s why we need to concentrate our efforts on leveling up and maximizing that comprehensible input and design low stress online activities to help them show what they learned. This is exactly why the emphasis on social emotional learning and extending grace and extending love and concern for our students is so critical.

Steps for Comprehensible Input

I want to share six tips: three that are specific to comprehensible input and three that focus on the output. Now these are the first three strategies to make remote lessons more comprehensible. The first one is providing language input with multiple representations. The next one is using speech that is appropriate to students’ proficiency levels. Lastly is providing a clear explanation of online tasks.

1. Using Visuals

So let’s look at the first one. It’s super important to present new information in a variety of ways to make whatever content you teach, whether you teach English, math, science, government, or even language, to make that accessible. So I always visualize a fisherman mending and sewing a tighter net to catch more fish. Now I know it’s a lot of work. It’s time consuming and sometimes really cumbersome but we have to break down those language heavy content and use as many non-linguistic representations to help our students get it. For example, visuals, images, bitmojis, animated gifs, graphic organizers, and multimedia supports like video clips, virtual field trips, or even changing your virtual background on Zoom and so forth. I noticed that these little changes we make in our instruction have a huge impact in our student’s comprehension and it gets engraved in their brain because these scaffolds really help create memorable events, very rich in emotions instead of just listening to a lecture. These multiple representations will make our fishing nets tighter and really help us to catch all learners.

The two examples I have on this slide are using animated gif images to really enhance meaning and provide that visual support for new content or new vocabulary. Example two is using animations or gifs to introduce an abstract, confusing, language heavy concept of main idea and details.

2. Speech

The next tip I want to share is speech. I know it’s very basic, but I felt that it was very crucial that I go over this, which means our verbal input and using this verbal input that’s appropriate for a remote setting. With my students permission, I want to show you a quick one-minute video response of my beloved newcomer student and her thoughts about her distance learning experience. So watch this with us.

So those are the four recaps that she mentioned, like how she mentioned if we talk too long or too fast or use words that students don’t really know, especially our level ones or a newly arrived or SLIFE students, we’re not optimizing comprehensible input. To make sure that our speech input is understandable, we need to slow down. I’m guilty of this. We need to slow down, use frequent pauses in our speech, check frequently for understanding, enunciate clearly, and use high frequency words. I try my best to overreact and overuse nonverbal cues, using body language, pointing, and hand gestures to support my verbal explanations. Students also really appreciate seeing the smiley faces and the teachers carrying a positive vibe and a good attitude. I learned that that positivity transcends distance over the screen.

3. Assign Clear Tasks

The next tip is making sure that online tasks that we assign are understandable and clear, not only our verbal input but the online assignments and the formative and summative assessments are clear. English learners need explicit instructions, meaning our instructions must be stated clearly and in detail, leaving no room for confusion. It’s even harder for them to fill in those gaps in an online setting when the instructions that we give are not clear. My two tips that I want to share are giving them a step-by-step manner in smaller chunks, and also model it or share your screen with them and show them what the final product would look like so that they know exactly what each step of the task entails. Also, whenever possible, I provide their home language support to avoid any confusion that they might have. One tech tip I want to share is this one click google translate link hack that you can use. I don’t think I will have enough time to go over each of the steps but basically what this is, it gives students access to pre-written instructions in different languages using google translate and it’s been a game changer in my classroom.

Comprehensible Output: Designing Tasks To Help Students Understand What they Learned

We talked about comprehensible input, so now let’s talk about outputs. These are three elements to keep in mind. Number one, again multiple representations. Designing multiple tasks to help students show what they learn. Number two, targeted output and focusing on what’s most important. Lastly, group work. I mentioned affective filters earlier and this applies to the output of their learning as well. I learned that I need to purposely design low stress output opportunities, especially my newly arrived students, for them to show what they learned. Some examples are letting students draw. I love using Pear Deck for this where you can have them draw on a piece of paper, take a picture of it, and send it to you. okay also

When I asked and polled all my students at the end of last semester what helped them learn the most, 99.9 percent of them said games like interactive games. They love Kahoot, Quizlet, Live Word Wall, all of these games that are available online. I learned that when my students come into my virtual classroom, they want to like to interact with each other. They want to do things that we are used to doing in our physical classroom. They’re so thirsty, they’re super thirsty for social connection. Games and game based learning strategies and tools are excellent for distance learning. If you have never tried some of these game-based learning tools that are on the screen, these are the codes that I use in my classroom that you can use later on and try on your own after our session.

The next example is using digital manipulatives using google slides. I am a lover of google slides so these are hands-on tests and movable virtual pieces that really helped reduce the linguistic load from our learners and really helped lower that affective filter. The kinesthetic nature of learning really helped transfer difficult, abstract concepts into more of a concrete and visible way. You can easily create these movable pieces in google slides, which is a tool that I love not only for my presentations but for students to apply what they learn, to practice, and for me to assess their learning and so forth.

If you want to try it out and get a feel to what these moving pieces look like in Google slides, feel free to visit these slides and this deck after this session. The next strategy is having targeted output. First, I want to emphasize the fact that less is more. Resist the urge to go fast. I still struggle with this but slow down. Check for understanding. Less is more, and again to be honest I still struggle with this, but as educators we need to choose wisely, especially because we’re going through difficult times. I think the most difficult time of our career. We have to choose wisely. We have to prioritize and teach the most important thing at a much slower pace. I always get tempted to use all these amazing technology tools that are out there and what all these twitter people are doing. I get tempted but my recommendation is to choose a few tools that enable you to give more opportunities for your students and hone into those few in your toolbox. Go deeper with those few. For example, for me google slides would be that tool in my toolbox. It really helped me craft clear language and content objectives to prioritize and aim at what we want our students to achieve and present these objectives clearly to our students. Here’s an example of my content and language objectives that I go through every session and every week. We would read the objectives together, we annotate together, we take turns reading them in their home language. This routine not only helped me as a teacher with having a clear target but also helped my students. It really increased their ownership of the whole learning process and helped them really know exactly what they are going to do and what they are going to learn for that week.

Group Work and Virtual Collaboration

The last element that I want to share, and this is my favorite, is group work and virtual collaboration. We all know as language educators that collaborative learning is best practiced when it comes to language learning. Students still need to be actively engaged in writing, reading, speaking, and listening virtually. Now I really have no idea what our school would look like in the fall but even if we gather face-to-face, I imagine that we will probably need to be socially distanced. I plan to use the breakout room feature of my video conferencing platform and this way I can envision my students will be sitting socially distant but still interact virtually through chat rooms or microphone, and be engaged in that collaborative active learning without having to worry about math or getting sick or being too close to each other and so forth.

So here on the screen you see examples of my collaborative google slides assignments. All the students are in one single deck synchronously and these moving pieces that you see here are real evidence of each of the student’s voice. It’s a really safe place for them to share what they feel and what they’re learning and it’s like a much-needed virtual learning classroom. It really helps build that class community. I also want to give a shout out to Theresa Wills. She is the one that I learn all these collaborative google slides. She’s an expert on this, so if you want to follow her on twitter the handle is on the screen.

Lastly, I want to show you a recording of one of my live classes with high school newcomers and SLIFE students in action. My hope is that this video gives you a practical insider’s view of how to implement collaborative online work, how you do breakout rooms, how you do digital manipulatives in google slides. Hopefully this will give you an idea of how to apply some of these techniques I shared into your day-to-day practice. So let’s watch this together.

The conferencing platform that we use is Blackboard Collaborate, which has a breakout room feature and I know that zoom has it, google meet is currently working on doing the breakout room feature. Hopefully they will get it ready. I hope these six tips and techniques that we discovered together will hopefully apply no matter what type of studying you will be teaching this fall. If you want to learn more in depth about some of the strategies and tools that I share today, you can visit my website, you can connect with me on twitter, or you can check out today’s handouts. All the resources will be linked there. That’s all I got. Thank you so much for listening and thank you so much for this opportunity of just growing and learning together.

Thank you so much to our panel. I know our audience is just thrilled with this content and everything that you had to share. Thank you once again for all that you do and just remember we’re all in this together. We’re all in the same boat and focusing on collaboration and good instruction is the way to approach all of this uncertainty. We appreciate you thank you everybody for joining us!